Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ed.D.)


Administrative and Instructional Leadership

First Advisor

James Campbell

Second Advisor

Anthony Annunziato

Third Advisor

Richard Bernato


All teachers, regardless of their backgrounds, require appropriate preparation to address the necessities of all students. A significant challenge in preparing teachers is ensuring they are familiar with the unique characteristics of the different group of students in their classrooms. According to New York State of Education (NYSED), the breakdown of ethnic groups’ enrollment is: 17% Black or African American, 27% Hispanic or Latino, 1% American Indian or Alaska native, 10% Asian or native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander, 43% White and 2% multiracial (NYSED, 2019). As the number of diverse ethnicities continues to grow, it is left to educators to ensure that all students are given an equal opportunity to get an education (NYSED, 2019). Teacher training must be done in order to understand how to engage all students in the learning process. Teacher education programs throughout the nation have coupled their effort at reform with revised programs committed to social justice and equity (G. Ladson-Billings, 1995). According to the NYSED, the culturally responsive sustaining (CR-S) education framework helps educators create student-centered learning environments that: affirm racial, linguistic and cultural identities; prepare students for rigor and independent learning, develop students’ abilities to connect across lines of difference; elevate historically marginalized voices; and empower students as agents of social change (NYSED, 2018). However, there are limited numbers of schools that provide the training and support for culturally relevant teaching (CRT). This research sought to categorize the preparation of teachers and practices that support CR-S education. The findings of this study will guide teachers to understand the impact that culturally responsive teaching (CRT) can have with teaching diverse groups of learners. It will also provide a better understanding of why it is important to implement CRT effectively in the classroom. School administrators must provide professional development, resources, and continuous support in order for teachers to implement CR-S education effectively. Planning and practice cannot happen without the right training and reinforcement from the administration team.