Journal of Global Awareness

Journal of Global Awareness

Publication Ethics and Malpractice Statement

In pursuit of the highest standards of publication ethics and to promote and achieve the expected ethical behavior, this statement outlines the obligations and responsibilities of all parties — authors, reviewers, editors, and the publisher — involved with publication of the Journal of Global Awareness.

This statement is following guidelines developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). COPE has established several codes of conduct and best practice recommendations for journals, editors, and publishers in order to develop knowledge and understanding required to reach the highest publication standards. These include the Code of Conduct and Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors and the Core Practices (shortcut: Our Core Practices). The latter is a searchable database offering a variety of actual case studies, guidance for day-to-day practice, education modules, and events on topical issues to help with the identification and resolution of increasingly complex ethical issues in publishing. Some of the resources have been translated into other languages such as Spanish and Chinese. Established in 2017, the Core Practices replaced the original "Code of Conduct for Journal Publishers." Accordingly, the above guidelines and practices are applicable to all parties involved in publication of scholarly journal literature.

Some topics coverd in this statement have also been discussed on the Guidance for Authors page. The following summaries and discussions of essential points are based on the COPE’s guidelines for conduct and core practices. Please refer to the above listed documents for full details.

Duties of Editors

General Duties

Editors are responsible for everything published in and related to the Journal. This includes meeting the needs of readers and authors, constantly improving the Journal, championing freedom of expression, preserving the integrity of the academic record, preventing the compromise of intellectual and ethical standards and publishing corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies if needed.

Publication Decisions

Editors have full authority over the entire editorial content of the Journal and the timing of publication of that content. Decisions to accept or reject a manuscript for publication should be based on the manuscript’s importance, originality, clarity, and the study’s validity and relevance. Additionally, editors might be guided by the Editorial Board’s policies and/or legal constraints such as evidence of plagiarism or libel. Editors ensure that all submitted manuscripts being considered for publication undergo peer-review by reviewers who are experts in the field. An editor may confer with other editors or reviewers in making this decision.

Fair Play

Publication decisions should be made without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the authors or their institutional affiliation.


Editors must obey the laws on confidentiality. Regardless of any local statutes, however, they should always protect the confidentiality of individual information obtained in the course of research or professional interactions. Editors should have procedures to ensure that material submitted to the Journal remains confidential while under review. Submitted manuscripts cannot be shared with anybody except with the reviewers, Editorial Board, editorial advisers, and the publisher, accordingly.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Editors and members of the Editorial Board of this Journal shall not use unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted manuscript for his/her own research without the author’s explicit written consent. They will also recuse themselves in case of conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships/connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the manuscripts; instead, they will ask another member of the Editorial Board to handle the submission.

Research Misconduct Prevention

Editors and the publisher shall take reasonable steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred. Some examples of ethical issues in this category include: plagiarism, duplicate publication, image fraud, authorship disputes, and falsification of data. In the event that the Journal’s publisher or editors have been made aware of any allegation of research misconduct, the publisher or editors shall deal with allegations appropriately and in a timely manner.

Duties of Peer-Reviewers

Editorial Oversight

Peer-review is defined as obtaining advice on individual manuscripts from reviewers and experts in the field. The entire Journal’s content should be subjected to peer-review. Editors should strive to ensure that the peer-review process is fair, unbiased, and timely. Editors should keep informed about the research of peer-review, technological advances and adopt peer-review methods best suited for this Journal and the research community served. Editors should evaluate peer-review practices periodically to see if improvement is possible.

Contribution to Editorial Decisions

While respecting the intellectual independence of the author(s), reviewers should identify the strengths and weaknesses of a manuscript and, through editorial communications, help the Editor-in-Chief work with the author(s) to improve the manuscript. Thus, reviewers can help make the editorial decision about a manuscript’s publication. Peer-review remains an essential element in the scholarly communication and academic writing process.


Usually, reviewers have to perform a few readings of the manuscript yet still complete the review in a timely manner. In the event that the reviewer feels unqualified or that he/she cannot complete the review of the manuscript within the expected time, he/she should notify the Editor-in-Chief and withdraw from the process so an alternative reviewer can be assigned.


Reviewed articles should be treated confidentially. Any manuscript received for review must be treated as a confidential document. Manuscripts must not be shown to or discussed with others unless authorized by the Editor-in-Chief.

Standards of Objectivity

Reviews should be conducted objectively. Reviewers should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments so their comments can be used to improve the manuscript. Personal criticism of the author is not acceptable.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Reviewers should identify relevant published works that have not been cited by the author(s). Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge.

Disclosure and Conflict of Interest

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer- review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Unpublished material disclosed in a submitted manuscript must not be used in a reviewer’s own research without the author’s express written consent. Reviewers should not evaluate manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission. Instead, they should ask the Editor–in-Chief to assign another reviewer to handle the manuscript.

Duties of Authors

Reporting Standards

Authors of reports of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Supporting data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A manuscript should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and are unacceptable.

Data Access and Retention

Authors may be asked to provide the raw data supporting an article for editorial review and should be prepared to provide access to such data if practicable. Authors should also be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time post publication of the manuscript.

Originality and Plagiarism

Authors should ensure that they have written an entirely original work. If the authors have used the work and/or words of others, it should be appropriately cited or quoted.

Multiple, Redundant or Concurrent Publication

An author should not publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.

Authorship of the Manuscript

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be acknowledged or listed as contributors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the manuscript and have agreed to its submission for publication.

Disclosure and Conflicts of Interest

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflicts of interest that might be construed to influence the results or interpretation of their manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed. This should be done at the earliest stage possible, generally by submitting a disclosure form at the time of submission of the manuscript.

Acknowledgment of Sources

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work. Information obtained privately (from a conversation, correspondence, or discussion with third parties) must not be used or reported without explicit, written permission from the source.

Hazards and Human or Animal Subjects

If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment with any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the authors must clearly identify these in the manuscript.

Peer-Review Participation

Authors are obliged to participate in the peer-review process and cooperate fully by responding promptly to editors’ requests for raw data, clarifications, copyright permissions, etc. Authors should respond to the reviewers’ comments systematically and in a timely manner, revising and re-submitting their manuscript to the Journal by the given deadline.

Fundamental Errors in Published Works

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the Journal, editor, or publisher and cooperate with them to either correct the paper in the form of an erratum or to retract the paper.

Duties of the Publisher

Publisher’s Conduct

The publisher defines the relationship with the editors and other parties. Examples include: respecting privacy of research participants, authors, and peer-reviewers; fostering editorial independence; and protecting intellectual property and copyright.

Handling of Unethical Publishing Behavior

In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication, or plagiarism, the publisher, in close collaboration with the Editor-in-Chief, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work.

The Publisher and the Journal do not discriminate on the basis of age, color, religion, creed, disability, marital status, veteran status, national origin, race, gender, genetic predisposition or carrier status, or sexual orientation in its publishing programs, services and activities.

Access to Journal Content

The publisher is committed to the permanent availability and preservation of scholarly research and ensures accessibility by maintaining their own digital archive.