Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ed.D.)


Administrative and Instructional Leadership

First Advisor

James Campbell

Second Advisor

Richard Bernato

Third Advisor

Anthony Annunziato


he purpose of this nonexperimental quantitative study was to explore the relationship between New York State education funding for public school districts, the academic achievement of Black and Latinx students, and educational opportunity gaps that may result from a lack of access to Advanced Placement courses. These relationships were assessed with multiple linear regressions using the variables of student enrollment rates by race, English and math proficiency scores, the number of Advanced Placement, and levels of state education funding per district. The data were obtained from New York State Education Department financial reporting. The problem addressed by this study was the ongoing gaps in academic opportunity and achievement faced by minority students due to racial disparities and inequitable education funding. The theoretical frameworks utilized were Critical Race Theory and Conflict Theory, which provided context for the problem statement and results. Evidence was found that student enrollment by race significantly predicts levels of state aid. As enrollment increases, state aid also increases. Race was not predictive of differences in Math and ELA State Assessment Scores, but Black students appear to experience opportunity gaps from less access to Advanced Placement courses in comparison to their Latinx and White peers. These findings have national implications as educational disparities lead to inequalities in careers, income, and political participation. Thus, lawmakers must be informed about the negative effects that inequitable education funding can have in promoting academic opportunity gaps.

Included in

Finance Commons