Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ed.D.)


Administrative and Instructional Leadership

First Advisor

Jenny Yang

Second Advisor

Seohkee Cho,

Third Advisor

Katherine Aquino


The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000) emphasizes the importance of communication in mathematics and mathematics education. Effective mathematical communication is essential in mathematics instruction, as it is a collaborative and social activity between teachers and students (Moschkovich, 2002; Khairunnisa et al., 2020). This qualitative case study aimed to investigate how elementary school teachers facilitated meaningful mathematical discourse among English learners (ELs) with diverse backgrounds and how they used purposeful questioning strategies to accommodate students with varying levels of linguistic proficiency in culturally and linguistically diverse classrooms. The study also explored teachers’ perceptions of supporting young ELs to enhance students’ participation, conceptual understanding, and problem-solving abilities in advanced mathematics curricula. The study used socio-cultural theory (Vygotsky, 1978), including classroom observations, fieldnotes, semi-structured interviews, informal interviews, and classroom artifacts. Participants in the study consisted of four teachers from grades one and two who delivered an advanced mathematics curriculum to English learners in the BRIDGE program in a Northeastern state of America. After the data were collected and analyzed, the study discussed the results. The findings of this study revealed that teachers utilized various instructional and communication strategies to cultivate meaningful mathematical discourse among young ELs in their classrooms. They used various questioning techniques to improve students’ mathematical skills and foster critical thinking and reasoning among ELs. Teachers recognized their pivotal role in creating a positive and supportive learning environment, particularly in the context of mathematics education for young ELs. They believed that with adequate support, ELs possess the capacity to excel in mathematics learning. They acknowledged their responsibility in facilitating the enhancement of students’ proficiency in both mathematics and English. The implications of the findings for mathematics education and the instruction of ELs in culturally and linguistically diverse settings were discussed. This study is significant within the United States, where the population of English learners has dramatically increased, alongside the imperative demand for mathematical instruction and mathematics education reforms, particularly in the current era of accountability.