Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ed.D.)


Administrative and Instructional Leadership

First Advisor

James Campbell

Second Advisor

Anthony Annunziato

Third Advisor

Richard Bernato


The future success of today’s students and our nation depends on how well prepared our students are to contribute to the globalized world of the 21st century. The population of English Language Learners (ELLs) is exploding in the United States. If students are not given the appropriate language scaffolds to learn English, ELLs will struggle academically, finding themselves ill-prepared for success in the workplace and their roles as active civic participants. This quantitative study focused on three cohorts (n = 25 each) of randomly selected second grade students enrolled in Dual Language Program, Transitional Bilingual Education Program, or English as a New Language programs in New York City in the 2018-2019 school year. It explored the differences in academic achievement across these three program types, as measured by the NYSESLAT. It also explored the differences in English language skills—receptive skills (i.e., listening and reading) and productive skills (i.e., speaking and writing). The study did not find statistically significant differences across these three program types. It found more differences within group that between groups. This raises interesting and important questions for future research. Is it possible that the NYSESLAT does not capture subtle differences between programs? What is the role of variation in the student population across these program types? What is the role of variation in the teachers and teaching styles across these program types?