Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ph.D)


Education Specialties

First Advisor

Clare Waterman

Second Advisor

Joseph Rumenapp


With an increasing number of English Language Learners (ELLs) entering the American education system, one would expect an increasing number of ELLs as high school and college graduates. However, graduation rates for ELLs lag behind their monolingual peers, most likely due to a lack of college preparation provided to these students. With the implementation of AP For All in New York City schools, ELLs now have an increased chance to participate in college-preparatory and college-level courses. Therefore, an archival data correlational research study was designed to identify the association between ELLs’ participation in Advanced Placement (AP) courses and their English Language Arts (ELA) Regents scores. The study focused on students’ participation in one or more AP courses and their scores on the ELA Regents exam. The participants are 5,128 seniors that attend public high schools in New York City during the 2018–2019 school year. The study collected pre-existing administrative data collected by the New York City Department of Education. The data consists of ELLs’ academic courses and ELA Regents scores, among other control variables (such as sex, number of ap courses, free/reduced lunch status, etc.). The data was transformed, statistically analyzed, and then utilized to answer all three research questions. The findings of this study suggest that participation in AP courses helps to improve ELL’s ELA Regents scores, but does not assist them in achieving college readiness scores. Previous studies have explored ELLs and the ELA Regents, as well as Regents exams and AP course participation. However, very few studies have looked at ELLs participation in AP courses. Few studies have also explored ELA Regents scores of ELLs participating in advanced course work. This study’s findings support provision of advanced opportunities for ELLs, leading to a transformation in the way ELLs are educated. The study concludes with recommendations for future research and recommendations for future practice to assist in the transformation of ELL education.