Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Psychology (Ph.D.)



First Advisor

Samuel O Ortiz

Second Advisor

Mark D Terjesen

Third Advisor

Marlene Sotelo-Dynega


It is estimated by the year 2060, minority students will make up more than 50% of the United States population (Ding, Cho, Wang & Yu, 2019). The importance of correctly identifying and placing students in special education is becoming crucial as the population of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse students (CLD) and English Language Learners (ELL) is increasing. Bilingual school psychologists are few in number across the nation. Moreover, the most significant problem with regard to bilingual assessment is the lack of a set of standards or guidelines by which practitioners can be held responsible for their assessment practices. The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing Version 2 (AERA, APA, & NCME, 2014) offers recommendations for best practices when conducting bilingual assessment called, Fairness Standards. The current study examines how school psychologists of varying levels of education, years of experience, and regions in which they work conduct cognitive assessments for native English speakers in comparison to English learners. Survey findings indicate the presence of bias in school psychologists’ practices when conducting an assessment, determining the presence of a learning disability, and when making program placement recommendations. Results show that student race and native language impact school psychologists’ practice.

Included in

Psychology Commons