Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ph.D)


Administrative and Instructional Leadership

First Advisor

Seokhee Cho

Second Advisor

James Campbell

Third Advisor

Richard Bernato


This study explored students’ perceptions of classroom quality in gifted and non-gifted education settings in Saudi Arabia. The researcher used the Zone of Proximal Development theory and Expectancy Value Theory to frame the study. The research was conducted across three public schools (458 students) and two private schools (353 students) that included gifted and regular education programs in grades 7-12. A total of sixteen teachers and 811 students participated in the study; 395 were in the gifted programs, while 416 were in the non-gifted. The teachers completed a Differentiated Instruction (DI) survey, while the students completed the Students’ Perceptions of Classroom Quality (SPOCQ) survey. Statistical analysis revealed that students’ perceptions of classroom quality differed by program, school, and classroom type. It was also found that the teacher’s professional development predicts students' perceptions. Differentiated instruction did not predict students’ perceptions of classroom quality. It is anticipated that the results would inform the domain and help educators and policymakers understand differentiated instruction and classroom quality.