Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Psychology (Ph.D.)



First Advisor

Mark Terjesen

Second Advisor

Raymond DiGiuseppe

Third Advisor

Samuel Ortiz


Cognitive Behavioral Therapies are frequently used and highly effective; however, most of the research is conducted on Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich, and Democratic (WEIRD) populations who are relatively homogeneous. The present study evaluated the use and adaptations of Cognitive Therapy (CT), Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), and Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) based upon WEIRD status, language, and cultural values as measured by Hofstede's country comparison (2021). In a survey, therapists worldwide (n=121) reported their use and adaptation of the techniques within their therapeutic orientation. Although no significant differences were found between WEIRD or language groupings specific to CT, CBT, or REBT; language, long-term orientation, and indulgence were significant predictors when considering use and adaptations of general cognitive-behavioral techniques. Adaptations for both diverse and WEIRD practitioners to consider using with clients are discussed. Specific insight towards school psychologists is considered, as the adaptations required when working in a school and with children and adolescents may warrant additional adaptations.