Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Philosophy (Ph.D)


Education Specialties

First Advisor

Rachael Helfrick

Second Advisor

Aly McDowell

Third Advisor

Elizabeth Brett Blake


The purpose of this study was to understand how teachers leveraged the components of Project Based Learning (PBL) in a hybrid, remote, or in-person classroom environment to promote cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement. A narrative inquiry was conducted examining three teachers’ implementation of PBL with students in Grades 4, 5, and 8 in the Spring of 2021. Findings revealed students’ needs prompted teachers to emphasize certain components, which positively influenced student engagement. Teacher 1 leveraged critique and revision and scaffolding resulting in behavioral engagement. Teacher 2 leveraged sustained inquiry and building the culture resulting in cognitive engagement. Teacher 3 leveraged voice and choice and design and plan, which resulted in emotional engagement. Takeaways resulted in the significance on the social and emotional well-being of both students and teachers to build a strong classroom culture to lay the foundation for all types of engagement to ensue.