Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Philosophy (Ph.D)


Education Specialties

First Advisor

Evan EO Ortlieb

Second Advisor

Ninah NB Beliavsky

Third Advisor

Yvone YPJ Yvonne Pratt-Johnson


The purpose of this mixed-methods explanatory sequential design study is to better understand university-level foreign students’ motivations for attending tutoring sessions. Forty-eight university students were selected based on their enrollment in a university's intensive English language learning program. This study involved two phases of data collection including surveying these students, and then following up with a focus group interview (Creswell, 2015). The 19-item questionnaire asked about perceptions of tutoring effectiveness, motivations for tutoring, and overall experiences with tutoring. Interview questions were informed by the results of the survey in order to further elicit student perspectives and enrich the overall description of their experiences. Limitations include a having a narrow demographic profile, small sample size, and a lack of generalizable findings. Recommendations are provided for tutoring centers to consider including using a variety of activities, having flexible tutoring times/days each week, and having student ambassadors liaise with course instructors. Teachers, specialists, and heads of tutoring centers should be mindful of their specific students’ emerging and ongoing needs, encouraging English Language Learners to participate in tutoring services to enhance their literacy and language skills.

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