Date of Award


Document Type


First Advisor

Raymond DiGiuseppe

Second Advisor

Wilson McDermut


Patients diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs) have higher morbidity and mortality rates than those without PDs. The DSM-5 PD diagnoses and the cluster system lack a theoretical and empirical basis, which hinders the development of knowledge about PDs and interventions for PDs. This present study attempts to add to this literature by forming PD groups using a combination of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and latent class analysis (LCA) based on PD scores from the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-IV (MCMI-IV), a method recommended by Gorman and Primavera (1983). Participants were 251 English speaking males and females ages 18 to 75 seeking outpatient psychotherapy at a private non-profit clinic. The EFA yielded a four-factor model of the MCMI-IV, and the factors can be described as Neuroticism, Antagonism, Extraversion vs. Introversion, and Compulsivity vs. Defiance factors. The results of the LCA suggest a five-class solution, with classes that can be labeled Neuroticism, Antagonism, Depression and Anxiety, No PD, and Extraversion classes, which were then compared on MCMI-IV personality, clinical, and Grossman Facet scales. Latent classes and factors were matched on some PD scales, but there were also some notable differences. Future research directions are discussed.

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Psychology Commons