Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ph.D)


Administrative and Instructional Leadership

First Advisor

James Campbell


Over the past decade the ratio of student to computer has decreased rapidly (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008). Technology is constantly evolving; students in today’s classrooms are “digital natives” (Prensky, 2005). The United States government has devoted many plans of action through their evolving Office of Educational Technology (U.S. Department of Education, 2017). Schools have employed 1:1 technology programs for students but the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) assessments have shown limited progress of students’ scores for both math and reading (Neuhaus et al., 2018). To what extent do educators integrate technology in their classroom instructional practice? To what extent does technology improve teaching and learning? What impact does technology have on teachers’ instruction?

This study used a mixed method case study methodology to gather research in a suburban middle school that currently employs a 1:1 Chromebook initiative, for the past six years. The researcher conducted a survey with a sample size of 64 teachers. Semi-focused interviews also took place with 6 educators in different departments with 5 years of experience before and 6 years of experience after the Chromebook initiative had taken place. Statistical software was used to uncover trends and themes within collected data.

The quantitative findings were significant and resulting implications can be used to support teacher efficacy when integrating educational technology in instruction. Teacher preparation for 1:1 technology integration and a common goal communicated to all constituents would lead to a technology rich environment. Additionally, teachers’ content and technological knowledge should be in line with pedagogical knowledge. Technology should be seen as a tool to support pedagogy and content knowledge. A recommendation for future research is to complete an explanatory study to use the quantitative research to structure qualitative interview questions, as this study completed both pieces of the mixed method study simultaneously. This study’s findings have implications for teachers, administrators, and educational policy makers.