Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ph.D)


Administrative and Instructional Leadership

First Advisor

Anthony Annunziato

Second Advisor

Richard Bernato

Third Advisor

James Campbell


Professional development provides support and training to teachers using new technologies. Several educational technology models, guidelines, and frameworks have provided educators a guide to effective technology integration. Building upon previous models like the SAMR model (Puentedura, 2013), the TPCK model (Misrah and & Koehler, 2005), and the RAT model (Hughes, 1998), a new model called the PICRAT matrix (Kimmons, 2018) has emerged. PICRAT accounts for both the student’s interaction with educational technology and the teacher's use of technology in instructional practice. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher perceptions and instructional practice on educational technology before and after the introduction of the PICRAT matrix through a professional development intervention session. The participants were secondary educators from various school districts from the Long Island region of New York. Data for teacher perceptions were collected via a pre-survey and post-survey. Participants also attended a professional development session on the PICRAT matrix. Teacher practice was examined by collecting samples of lesson activities as documentation before and after the professional development session. The lesson activities were evaluated using the PICRAT matrix as an instrument by the researcher before and after the professional development session. Interviews were conducted with participants that shifted the most amount of spaces on the PICRAT matrix. The findings determined that participants immediately had a shift in their perceptions and instructional practice after the professional development session. They were able to implement higher levels of technology integration after just one professional development session. Stakeholders should consider the benefits of focused professional development on educational technology integration models, in particular, PICRAT as an important part of their professional development offerings to their educators. Future researchers could expand the scope, sample size, and length of the study to further test the findings.