Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ed.D.)


Administrative and Instructional Leadership

First Advisor

James R Campbell

Second Advisor

Anthony Annunziato

Third Advisor

Richard Bernato


Disenfranchised and marginalized groups of students are not being met with the same level of academic success as their counterparts in other parts of the city. Specifically, the achievement gap among Black and Hispanic students in New York City urban high schools, has not improved to culturally acceptable norms. Despite gains in achievement across all races, there continues to be an achievement gap among different ethnic groups, particularly for Black and Hispanic students. The purpose of this quantitative study tested the theory of Stratified Urban Education which compared the theoretical constructs of Urban Leadership, Urban Pedagogy, and Urban Opportunities to Learn against the graduation rates of Black and Hispanic high school students of low SES communities in NYC schools. Each of the constructs was derived from both teacher and student responses to a series of questions on the 2017-2018 NYC survey. Study participants included teachers and students from schools that had an ENI index of ≥ 90%. The primary framework that was used to guide this study was based on the Five Essential Supports for School Improvement as defined by Anthony Bryk, Penny Sebring, Elaine Allensworth, Stuart Luppescu, and John Easton (2010). This study was able to produce findings utilizing SEM which employs the partial least squares PLS method as a means to quantity the theory of Stratified Urban Education against the constructs of Urban Leadership, Urban Pedagogy, and Urban Opportunity to Learn. Findings from this study may promote school administrators’ understanding of the particular characteristics of a leader that may have the greatest impact on teachers, and ultimately on the academic achievement of the students that are taught.