Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Education (Ph.D)


Administrative and Instructional Leadership

First Advisor

Anthony Annunziato

Second Advisor

Ann Macaluso

Third Advisor

Stephen Kotok


The practice of giving homework to elementary aged children has been debated for a number of years. Much of the research on traditional homework completion does not show a positive relationship to academic achievement for this age group, yet the practice continues. The purpose of this convergent mixed method design was to investigate the differences in the views of homework, held by parents of K-5 students and educators of K-5 students, specifically their views of homework regarding its effectiveness. Furthermore, this study investigated the homework experiences of these families and explored parent perceptions of their abilities to effectively provide homework support, particularly mathematics homework. This study is framed by Bandura’s social cognitive theory and Eccles’ expectancy-value theory. K-5 caregivers/parents (n = 256) and educators (n = 64) completed the Elementary Level Homework Survey (Appendix C). Survey data was analyzed quantitatively for mean differences while interview data and open-ended question data were analyzed and coded using NVivo. Multiple t-tests were conducted. A significant difference was found between parents and educators that suggest that educators are more likely to agree that homework increases student achievement and increases work habits. Multiple ANOVAs were conducted to investigate parent responses based on parent education level, who oversees homework completion as well as the number of children living in the home. Parents with a master’s degree felt significantly more capable to help their children compared to parents with some high school/high school diploma, some college/associate’s degree or bachelor’s degree. This research found strong themes of parents causing confusion for children, only 37.4% of parents felt that they can adequately help with math homework; 60.2% of parents and educators felt that parents can’t help with homework overall. In this research, 58% of parents felt that homework caused tension within their homes. Opportunities for future research are discussed as well as implications. Given this research, it is important that school districts investigate their homework practices.